mine is possibly not an exact response to your interesting question - but I know there are several people/vinyl cracks out here who do know much more about vinyl trivia than I do, and might embark on the Columbia/Capitol stuff more easily than I could (I have some notes but would have to cull them together, I will do but it might take some time).
Anyway - I think there is an extraordinarly fine website that illustrates the complexity of the topic, in this case regarding the Reprise records and their different labels. Check here for starters:
(There's a link guide at the bottom of that sub-page to all sections of the webpage).
I'm not aware that any such graphically illustrated page is available for Columbia/Capitol on the WWW - but I (hopefully) may be wrong!
Regarding Sinatra, major discographical enterpreneurs, like the "Sinatra Database CD-Rom", make mention of different label colors and hence offer a clue to their differences, but with little illustrations (yet).
The music never ends.