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Thread: Frank Sinatra on Racism

  1. Frank Sinatra on Racism

    The following article by Frank Sinatra (as told to editor Allan Morrison) was published in Ebony magazine, July 1958, pages 34–44.


    Bob in Boston

  2. “The Way I Look at Race” by Frank Sinatra

    THE WAY I LOOK AT RACE

    by Frank Sinatra

    (as told to Allan Morrison)

    A MAN’S friends are probably the most precious things he has for they give his life warmth and meaning and excitement. Without real friendship life would be a pretty empty experience. I can’t imagine a more miserable existence than one marked by utter loneliness and absence of understanding. In one of Shakespeare’s most famous plays, Hamlet, he wrote the following wonderful words of advice to a son from his father:

    The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried,
    Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel.

    Now I’m no scholar—singing is my business—but these lines beautifully answer for me the ageless question of how a man should choose his friends, and keep them.

    My many friends are scattered around this land and in some foreign countries, too. They are of many colors and religious faiths, rich and poor, intellectual and illiterate. A friend to me has no race, no class and belongs to no minority. My friendships were formed out of affection, mutual respect and a feeling of having something strong in common. These are eternal values that cannot be racially classified. This is the way I look at race.

    Some of my friendships have given rise to some strange, quite cock-eyed notions about me and the way I think. Because some of my good friends happen to be Negroes it has been suggested that I have a preference for colored people, that I “like” them. The fact is that I don’t “like” Negroes any more than I “like” Jews or Moslems or Italians or any other group. I don’t like according to the color of a man’s skin or his place of worship. And I have never picked a friend because of nationality. I simply like people, a lot of them, and my personal relationships are not determined by the boundaries of a country or what society thinks of certain kinds of human beings.

    I’d personally like to see more friendships forged across color and religious lines, for I feel this is the surest way to erase all the lines that divide people everywhere. The world is suffering from a shortage of love, between nations and individuals, and something drastic and dramatic is needed to meet this hunger.

    I’ve been singing love songs for a good many years now, but if I were asked to name the one that has the most meaning, that packs the greatest wallop, I’d have a very hard time for I don’t think this one has been written. My dream love song would be a swinging serenade to my own country America and to its many millions who represent almost every race and religion on earth. It would be the greatest love song of all because its theme would be the ancient and beautiful one of brotherly love, of goodwill between men of all colors and creeds.

    I have always believed that the love-thy-neighbor idea should be universal and be practiced by all men everywhere. It is not always practiced in our own country and this makes me terribly sad at times. I have a lot of optimism, though, and I believe that the future is full of promise. A great American novelist once said that we are lost but will one day find ourselves. Many of us are lost but our nation as a whole is not. We are moving slowly but surely toward becoming a great land of enlightenment and love. It has been a long and rocky road but I think we are getting there.

    America is the greatest example of modern democracy but many of us are apt to forget our great heritage and violate the creed that made us great as a nation. The Founding Fathers declared to the world that this country would be built on the idea that all men were created equal and that the pursuit of happiness should be the right of every citizen. We don’t always practice what we preach, however. Throughout large areas of the land, the word equality is considered dangerous and unfashionable. That it shouldn’t be so doesn’t alter the fact that inequality exists all over the place. I’m not a scholar nor do I consider myself a particularly eloquent man, but I think I understand part of the answer.

    In December I finished making a picture, Kings Go Forth, based on Joe David Brown’s fine novel of the same title, and I am excited both by its high entertainment values and the great but simple message that is tucked away in the story. That message is that love can conquer anything, including racial and religious differences. Kings Go Forth is a warm, personal love story set in Southern France during and after World War II. Lieutenant Sam Loggins, played by myself, commands an artillery platoon operating in a forward area of the combat zone. Among the reinforcements assigned to my unit is Britt Harris, played by Tony Curtis. Britt comes from a rich and influential family and is a natural charmer. Despite my early distrust of the guy we become friends and both fall for the same girl, Monique. Sam is in love with Monique but she prefers Britt, who promises to marry her.

    Sam’s love for Monique is a big and beautiful thing and he tells her, “I’ll try to make you love me—and I hope you will.” When Monique tells him that her father was an American Negro who came to France with her white mother to escape color prejudice, Sam is shocked, but after a week of thinking things over he decides that this fact doesn’t make any difference at all, that he is still in love with the girl. When Sam discovers that Britt never intended to marry Monique, he goes into a great rage, knocks Britt down and coldly says he is going to kill him.

    Britt’s cynical reasoning infuriates Sam. “I’ve been several times engaged to marry, and several times I have not been engaged to marry—if you follow me,” Britt tells him. “The girls weren’t always the kind I’d have taken to the country club, but with the exception of Monique every one of them was white.” When Monique realizes she has been betrayed by Britt she tries to commit suicide. While on a dangerous artillery observation mission Britt is killed by a German sniper, Sam survives and returns to find Monique after the war.

    That in brief is the story of Kings Go Forth, which United Artists will release this summer. To me it is more than great entertainment; it is a restatement in moving terms of the idea that the march of a great love cannot be stopped by such a superficial things as color.

    Race is one of the most superficial of all barriers. I look forward to the day when it will not be a serious factor affecting or retarding human relations. There is a narrated portion of the script of Kings Go Forth in which Sam tells Monique about his own background and how he was taught to regard Negroes in his own community in America. He replies to her bitter comment on the ready use by white Americans of the term “nigger.” Monique has just told him that it is probably the first word whites learn to use in the United States. “It’s not the first one you learn—and the kids never learn it at all … some learn it and never use it—I learned it easy and used it often—it showed how tough I was—and that wasn’t all—where I was brought up, Harlem near 125th—THEY were on one side—and we were on the other—why? I don’t know why—except a lot of people need somebody to look down on—or think they do.”

    In Hoboken, N. J., where I was reared, the community was divided into racial and religious compartments. There were the Italian-Americans, the Irish-Americans, the Jewish people—and the Negroes. Each had its own little section and carefully drawn boundary lines marked off one group from the other. When anyone strayed across his frontier and crossed into a “foreign” territory violence and fights often flared up. Name-calling was common. There were bitter, bloody block fights between boys of the various groups in which fists flew and rocks a plenty. My chief recollection of that period in life was that it was bitter, violent, tough and lacking in love and security.

    But I survived and learned one great lesson: You can’t hate and live a wholesome life. Prejudice and good citizenship just don’t go together. Bigotry is un-American.

    I’ve been up and down this country a lot since I first started singing and I’ve seen and heard a lot to make me feel both proud and ashamed of being an American. I’ve seen racial and religious intolerance take all kinds of forms and many times I have seen one man’s hand raised against his brother simply because he didn’t like the color of his skin. I have also seen decency and sanity rise out of the depths of depression and fear and assert themselves in truly wonderful way.

    It is not my task to preach to anyone or sell social messages to my fellow citizens but I happen to hold a few convictions about life and democracy. I hold certain definite opinions about some of the problems currently dividing our nation and frequently I feel the urge to express myself, to speak out on issues that entertainers don’t normally concern themselves with. I believe that an entertainer’s function is to entertain. But he is also a responsible citizen with the same rights and obligations as the next man. When an entertainer shirks his duty as a citizen in a crisis he is as much to be criticized as anybody else. And when he faces up courageously to an issue which because of its national importance affects him directly, he is entitled to applause. Louis Armstrong, whom I’ve long admired for his artistry as a performer, faced up to a great national issue last September and sounded off strongly in an interview given to a newspaperman in Grand Forks, N. D. Louis was understandably angry over the failure of the federal government to act quickly and firmly to protect the right of nine Negro students to go to a high school in Little Rock, Ark., without being segregated. A lot of people sided with Armstrong on that deal. Others said that he was too outspoken and should not make statements outside of the area of music. Though I felt at the time that Pops might have left out a few of those harsh words about his President and government, I believed he was basically right and perfectly justified in saying what he did. His was a righteous indignation over injustice.

    When Nat Cole was assaulted on a theater stage by bigoted hoodlums in Birmingham, Alabama, last year the whole entertainment profession experienced a sense of outrage. I was furious when I heard of the incident and immediately tried to reach Nat by phone to see how he was feeling and to tell him of my own personal anger at what had happened. I finally reached him in a motel on the road at 3:00 a.m. the following morning, and conveyed my concern and sympathy and I simply said I was shocked, sorry and angry over that outrage. Nat is not only a great entertainer but a first-rate citizen, a very classy gentleman who honors his profession wherever he appears. I am proud to count him as a friend.

    I have a lot of friends in and out of show business and they come from all walks of life and represent almost every imaginable skin tint. Friendship to me results from a warm and lasting meeting of minds and hearts and cannot possibly be based on such irrelevant factors as color, class, or creed. Sammy Davis Jr. is one of the world’s most gifted entertainers and one of the most successful. I’ve known him intimately since he was a child performer traveling the vaudeville and club circuit with his uncle and father and living out of trunks. My affection for Sammy reaches beyond his great talent and touches human qualities that would move me regardless of who possessed them. He would be my friend if he were the humblest artisan or a penniless panhandler. He’s that kind of a human being. Of course, our friendship has grown because we have such a lot in common. Sammy and I have many friends and interests in common. Our mutual circle of friends includes a lot of the same people like Judy Garland, Bob Wagner, Jeff Chandler, Peter Lawford and Montgomery Clift. Sammy has endeared himself to a lot of people because of his warm, generous nature and his great sense of humor. Truly a performer’s performer, he literally commands the respect of millions.

    Sammy to me represents the finest traditions in our business. His talents are so staggering that each time I see him I experience a greater thrill. I have said that I wouldn’t follow this man into any club or theater anywhere, not for all the gold in Las Vegas. The years have brought us closer and enriched our friendship. I am proud of his fabulous success which he has earned the hard way and fully deserves. Sammy never looked back on his way to the top but at the same time always retained the common touch. We share a strong urge to help all good efforts to strengthen our democracy. I applaud a performer of great talent who backs good causes, and Sammy is just this type of man. Last December he gave an amazing three-hour, one-man show at the Chicago Civic Opera House as a benefit for the Urban League of that city, an organization dedicated to furthering economic opportunities for American Negroes. The show netted the Urban League $20,000 and for Sammy the whole evening was a romp and a labor of love. This is the sort of thing he does so often that makes me love him.

    There are other friends of long standing, like Joe Louis the great, and the incomparable Sugar Ray Robinson, with whom I have shared his triumphs and defeat for 15 years. My passionate interest in boxing has brought me close to fighters whom I’ve idolized for their skill in the ring and later learned to like and admire as personal friends. Jersey Joe Walcott is one of these. A great courageous fighter in the ring, Walcott outside it is a gentle and sensitive man who loves all humanity. Gentleness nowadays is a rare quality but Joe has a lot of it. I would not attempt to choose a favorite boxer for I’ve admired and known so many great ones, but one of my favorite characters will always be Joe Louis. I’ve followed the ups and downs of Joe’s career since that night in 1938 when he took Max Schmeling out in the first round and recovered the heavyweight title for the United States. With or without a championship, rich or broke, Joe has always symbolized human dignity in its purest form. Louis makes me feel humble in his presence. He became a legend in his lifetime because he had the skill of a true artist, the strength of a demon and the heart of a lion. I have known him in moments of glory and adversity and he has never changed. I have always loved Jimmy Cannon for dreaming up that wonderful line in praise of Louis: “He is a credit to his race, the human race.” Whenever I am touched by the greatness of this guy I feel proud to be an American.

    Professionally and musically, I can’t begin to fully evaluate the tremendous importance of Negro singers and musicians to my development as a singer. The debt I owe them is too immense ever to be repaid. It has been much more than a long association. I have been on the receiving end of inspiration from a succession of great Negro singers and jazz artists stretching all the way back to early Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington, who is happily at last being recognized as one of his country’s most distinguished composers.

    In terms of my singing I have sometimes been asked how it all began, and it’s usually been a little hard for me to set the story down in any continuous narrative. From the days of my childhood I’ve been listening to sounds and singers, both colored and white, and absorbing a little bit here and a little bit there. Countless musicians of talent have helped. But it is Billie Holiday, whom I first heard in 52nd Street clubs in the early 1930’s, who was and still remains the greatest single musical influence on me. It has been a warm and wonderful influence and I am very proud to acknowledge it. Lady Day is unquestionably the most important influence on American popular singing in the last 20 years. With a few exceptions, every major pop singer in the U.S., during her generation has been touched in some way by her genius.

    The depth of Lady’s singing has always rocked me. When I first heard her, standing under a spotlight in a 52nd Street jazz spot, swaying with the beat, I was dazzled by her soft, breathtaking beauty. It was the kind of face that made a man want to touch it tenderly.

    When I was a youngster struggling to find myself I heard a lot of Ethel Waters whose feeling for the blues and great warmth touched me deep down. I shall never forget her. The art of Ella Fitzgerald has grown beautifully with the years and it has carried me right along with it. She is in my opinion the greatest of all contemporary jazz singers.

    There were many other great Negro jazzmen whom I met along the way and whose art helped to educate me musically. Listing them all would be a mighty undertaking but Lester Young, Ben Webster, the late Sid Catlett, Roy Eldridge, Charlie Shavers, Harry Edison, Johnny Hodges, Art Tatum, Earl Hines, Teddy Wilson, and Count Basie would figure prominently in it. Of today’s younger musicians Buddy Collette, Chico Hamilton, Miles Davis and Max Roach are among my special favorites.

    My experiences in music have taught me that talent has a blindness to color. Jazz has become an international force because the skills and creative talents of musicians of many colors and nations have combined to make it what it is. Our America is a great blending of peoples of all shades and beliefs. This blending of the human race has been going on since the beginning of time and nothing can stop it now. It is really the most natural thing in life. I get disgusted when I hear bigots denouncing integration in the schools because it is charged it will lead to race-mixing.

    Intermarriage is never a problem with civilized human beings, and when I speak of intermarriage I am thinking not alone of the mating of whites and Negroes, but relationships between Jew and Gentile, Catholic and Protestant. I was always taught that marriage was born in Heaven, and that this sacred union of two hearts has an integrity all its own. Marriage is a personal arrangement between two beings and should properly concern no one else.

    I believe that bigotry is a national disease but that it can be cured. We are curing it slowly and are on the road to the solution of our No. 1 domestic problem, segregation. I am happy to note that great strides are being made in the abolition of segregation. The U. S. Supreme Court spoke out against this evil in 1954 and 1955 when it declared separate schools violated the Constitution. Much resistance has been shown to integration and blood has been shed. I am afraid that much trouble lies ahead particularly in the Southern states but I am also convinced that segregation will be wiped out in our lifetime. I am exceedingly optimistic about the future of integration, much more than many of our politicians. Integration is inevitable and bigoted dimwits cannot prevent it.

    The tragedy of Little Rock was splashed across the world’s headlines and caused America to lose prestige in crucial areas. What has not been publicized, however, is the steady advance of integration. Over one-fifth of all school districts in the 17 Southern states have started to desegregate. I think that’s an achievement. In our churches un-Christian racial segregation is slowly ending. Of the 308,647 churches in the U. S., 30,864 have mixed memberships.

    In my own profession, show business, we have always felt proud of our tradition that performers should be rated and accepted on merit and nothing else. Entertainment on the whole has generally been ahead of the rest of the country in the matter of equal treatment and real democracy. There remain a few areas where a lot of work has to be done. For instance in music, it’s still a tragic fact that a number of cities still have segregated locals of the musicians union. That too will pass. Recording and radio studio bands are becoming more and more integrated. When I do a recording session for Capitol Records the orchestra backing me up is picked for musical standards alone and the result is that men like Harry Edison and Buddy Collette are invariably included and playing behind me.

    [continued in next post...]

  3. “The Way I Look at Race” by Frank Sinatra [conclusion]

    Hollywood Has Matured

    Hollywood has matured remarkably, especially in the last ten years in its treatment of racial themes in movies and its use and acceptance of Negro actors and performers. Stereotypes have just about disappeared. Kings Go Forth is the latest of a series of films dealing intelligently with interracial relations in the last ten years, and I think it should do an enormous amount of good. I am a strong believer in the subtle treatment of controversial issues like the racial problem as opposed to straight preaching which is seldom effective. We decided to treat the race theme subtly yet honestly. Most people who have seen the film conclude the Sam marries Monique after finding her operating a school for war orphans in the same village where they met. What is most important is that a great many people want this to happen.

    Sayonara, starring Marlon Brando, is another example of sensitive and honest treatment of the theme of interracial love. In this picture the love of a Japanese girl and a white American ends in marriage. Because the whole subject is handled with great taste and dignity the film is really exciting.

    Television is not as generous in its use of Negro talent as it could be but the picture is brightening. Barriers are being lowered everywhere. I was delighted to see my friend Nat Cole get his own show on television and equally disappointed when he failed to get a national sponsor for his show. But I insist that the show itself represented progress for the Negro as well as for the industry. It could have happened a lot earlier and should have. Ten years ago I was featured on the national TV show Hit Parade when Joan Edwards had to leave the show. I suggested Ella Fitzgerald to fill this vacancy and she was approved by the sponsor, a Southern tobacco manufacturer. Ella unfortunately never appeared on the show because her manager demanded a price far beyond the budget which he claimed was to compensate for cancellation of bookings. In her place the Hit Parade signed Doris Day who went on to become a top star.

    Some people have wanted to know why I am so interested in such things as discrimination and prejudice. I’ve been opposed to bigotry all my life because it’s wrong and indecent and because the people who practice it are hurting the country and making life miserable for others. In my own experienced I’ve known prejudice of another sort. A lot of people look down on Italians. Not long ago, a woman slightly drunk sat at my table in a night club near Carmel, Calif., and told me, “You know what we call you in our house? We call you ‘the wop singer.’” That wasn’t the first time I’ve been called “wop” and it probably won’t be the last. But I intend to go on doing what I can to eliminate this kind of sickness.

    All of us can do our bit to win the battle to banish bigotry from our land. One way the average citizen can help is to protest the use of racial derogatory epithets whenever they are heard. I long ago made it a practice to discontinue any conversation I found myself involved in where such terms as “nigger,” “wop,” “kike” or “hunky” were used. We must all be constantly alert to the hate sickness that is unfortunately all around us, North, South, East and West. A good American has more than a right, he has a duty to do something about it.

    Whenever I could find the time I’ve done my bit in the battle against bigotry. I’ve gone around the country a lot pleading for fair play, not preaching. I think I have gotten through to a lot of youngsters in asking them not to dislike people because of their color or religion. Back in 1945 when some students at Froebel High School in Gary, Ind., staged a strike against the admission of Negro students their action hit the headlines all over the country and was reported abroad. I went out to Gary to try to do something about that situation and found that some outside agitators had whipped up the kids into an hysteria. I spoke to the students in the school auditorium and sang The House I Live In.

    A few people thought I was way out of my depth in entering that explosive situation, but my only purpose was to try to calm those kids down and break down the walls of hate that had been artificially built up. In a way that was the most important show I ever gave. It started out with boos and jeers. Gradually the kids quieted down and listened to me. I think I reached a lot of them. In a few days the strike ended and they went back to their classes.

    I have unlimited faith in the decency and good sense of the youth of America and don’t believe that they will long be misled by prejudiced parents and politically-inspired agitators. Young America if left alone will think things through for itself. Little Rock showed that the great majority of the students there wanted to accept the law on integration. The hope for a happy and better future and improved race relations will ultimately lie with the young people of this country. By and large I think we can depend on them to do a good job in building the kind of democracy we want and which will be respected all over the world.

    I repeat I’m hopeful that these problems can and will be licked. The most important thing is to bring people of all kind together, to establish healthy contact between them. Once that is done fear and distrust will vanish and people will stop looking at each other as members of minorities but begin to regard and accept them as human beings.

    [Ebony magazine, July 1958]

  4. #4
    Brilliant !!!
    Forever Frank ~ Forever Betty ~ Forever Dina ~ Forever Bobbysoxer

  5. #5
    Great for you to post this, Bob. Very timely.
    Rick
    The enemy of truth is distortion.

  6. #6
    Thanks so much for posting, absolutely brilliant!
    Laura

    'This is a lovely way to spend an evening...'

  7. #7
    Thanks for posting. A brilliant piece that should be required reading in all of our schools.

    Sicilian pride forever

  8. #8
    Sinatra was lots of things, I think "crusader" is a fitting addition. Great piece of reading.

  9. Quote Originally Posted by voice1 View Post
    Great for you to post this, Bob. Very timely.
    Thank you, Rick. It was a groundbreaking article which is often quoted in part, but the full text is difficult to find—both online and in print. I don't believe it's been posted in full here before.

    These are the entry and quotations from Nancy's book (—> Today in Frank Sinatra history):

    JULY 2, 1958: Dad headlined "A Night with Sinatra" for the benefit of Cedars of Lebanon in Los Angeles. That same day, he attended the world premiere of Kings Go Forth. Playing a World War II Army radio operator, he falls in love with a French woman (Natalie Wood) who confesses that she's the daughter of a white mother and a black father. Tolerance is a theme that's close to his heart, and he talked about race relations that month in Ebony magazine:

    "Some of my friendships have given rise to some strange, quite cockeyed notions about me and the way I think. Because some of my good friends happen to be Negroes, it has been suggested that I have a preference for colored people, that I 'like' them. The fact is that I don't 'like' Negroes any more than I 'like' Jews or Moslems or Italians or any other group. I don't like according to the color of a man's skin or his place of worship. And I have never picked a friend because of his nationality. I simply like people, a lot of them, and my personal relationships are not determined by the boundaries of a country or what society thinks of certain kinds of human beings. I'd personally like to see more friendships forged across color and religious lines, for I feel this is the surest way to erase all the lines that divide people everywhere. The world is suffering from a shortage of love, between nations and individuals, and something drastic and dramatic is needed to meet this hunger."



    SAMMY DAVIS JR. ON HIS FRIENDSHIP WITH FRANK: I was the only black person that traveled in that sort of circle. Frank and I would talk about prejudiced people, and he'd say, "Aah, they're full of shit! Pay no attention to it." I can handle it all because of that learning experience, early in my life, with Frank. He forced me to learn. I was doing a gig at this nightclub in L.A., Ciro's. And Frank would bring all the heavyweights to see me. And then he started taking me around, introducing me to Gary Cooper, Judy Garland—all those people. I wanted to be like him so bad.

    This is a print ad (sorry, poor quality) which appeared in newspapers that month:



    “Bigotry is a disease!”

    SINATRA... the biggest money-maker in show business today ...the man who staged a most fabulous comeback with his role as Maggio in, “From Here to Eternity,” is not a man to preach to anyone or sell social messages to his fellow citizens. In his hectic, star-studded career, Frank Sinatra has had a world of experience in separating real people from phonies. What does he really think about the Negro? How did his early childhood affect his present feelings on racial and religious bigotry? What are his yardsticks for measuring Negroes, or whites for that matter? Does he prefer Negro entertainers to any others? Read Frank Sinatra’s heartfelt, “The Way I Look At Race,” as told to Allan Morrison in the big, exciting issue of EBONY, now on your newsstand.

    Bob in Boston
    Last edited by Bob in Boston; 08-03-2014 at 01:24 AM.

  10. #10
    He always had such a charming way with words. Sinatra was always a big voice on tolerance, professionally starting with his award-winning The House I Live In. Aren't we all glad he used his powerful voice for not just singing?
    Last edited by wattz2000; 08-02-2014 at 10:18 AM. Reason: Spelling
    Casey

  11. #11
    Excellent article and close to my heart for various reasons, pioneering too as Franks views were not shared, or at least voiced, by many at the time.

  12. #12
    Thanks Bob.
    Rhoda

    And there used to be a ballpark right here.

  13. #13
    That's why i admire him the most.

  14. #14
    Love you Frank!
    You can't have everything... where would you put it?
    Sally

  15. FRANK = a man for all mankind
    A Nightingale Sang In Berkeley Square

    My favorite song.

  16. #16
    It is not my task to preach to anyone or sell social messages to my fellow citizens but I happen to hold a few convictions about life and democracy. I hold certain definite opinions about some of the problems currently dividing our nation and frequently I feel the urge to express myself, to speak out on issues that entertainers don’t normally concern themselves with.
    ...and therein lay the difference.

    One of the main reasons I love the man as much as I do.
    let the music play as long as there's a song to sing

  17. #17
    Here are four children from Luino Italy... one of them has a Father who is not Italian... she's the second from the left... she's my Daughter... I love Frank Sinatra, and I loathe racism in all its forms. Enough said.... The occasion was the birthday of the girl furthest to the left, and I was at work, my Wife sent me this photo.


    Support the FAS Times Square Statue
    Sleep warm all!!!!!

  18. #18
    Quote Originally Posted by Jake View Post
    Here are four children from Luino Italy...
    Très cute!
    Pack a small bag....

  19. #19
    Here's another less cute collage... but both are revered in my Mother's Hometown of Leukerbad... Mark Twain was also a guest at one point, in his European trip...

    Baldwin wrote of my Mom's hometown in his "Stranger in the Village" work...


    Support the FAS Times Square Statue
    Sleep warm all!!!!!

  20. #20
    Frank was an amazing man. Reading those words just reemphasizes why he was one of the greatest Americans of the 20th Century.
    I can't believe what you say because I see what you do. ~ James Baldwin

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